OGB Appreciation Day : Exadata X8M

What is OGB Appreciation Day?

The Oracle Groundbreakers (OGB) Appreciation Day formally known as OTN Appreciation Day and ODC Appreciation Day, is a great initiative by Tim Hall aka Oracle-Base.com.  Where we take the opportunity to say thanks to the Oracle Community which includes but not limited to ACEs, Java Champions, Ambassadors and all those who have the Groundbreakers spirit #ThanksOGB 🙂

I wonder what will be the name will be next year 😉

More info on Oracle Groundbreakers Community can be found here:
About Oracle Groundbreakers Community

When is it?

This year, it is on Thursday 10th October 2019 and I have to confess I totally missed it and thus my post is a few days out but I didn’t want to do disservice to the spirit of the initiative.

You can see my previous post here:
2017 – ODC Appreciation Day : Oracle Exadata Database Machine
2018 – ODC Appreciation Day : Oracle dcli Utility

You can see a summary of previous years blog posts here:
2016 – OTN Appreciation Day : Summary
2017 – ODC Appreciation Day 2017 : It’s a Wrap (#ThanksODC)
2018 – ODC Appreciation Day 2018 : It’s a Wrap (#ThanksODC)
2019 – OGB Appreciation Day 2019 : It’s a Wrap (#ThanksOGB) – this year

My Contribution : Exadata X8M

When I was at Oracle Open World 2019 a few weeks ago, Larry Ellison (CTO of Oracle) announced the new Exadata X8M:

IMG_6715

Key point being in-memory performance utilising persistence memory and RDMA Network over Converged Ethernet (RoCE), which I will detail later on in this blog post.

Larry also boasted the Exadata X8M storage is 50x faster then AWS and 100x faster then Azure All flash storage:

IMG_6716

Following the announcement I attended another 2 sessions with Juan Loaiza (Executive Vice President, Mission Critical Database Technologies, Oracle) and Kothanda Umamageswaran (Senior Vice President, Exadata Development)/Gavin Parish (Senior Principal Product Manager, Exadata Development), who gave more details on the Exadata X8M:

IMG_6880

The keys changes are:

  1. 100Gb/Sec RoCE internal fabric
  2. 1.5TB Persistent Memory per storage server/cell

IMG_6881

RoCE Networking

IMG_6882

RoCE stand for RDMA (Remote Direct Memory Access) over Converged Ethernet, which initially from the start of Exadata had been over InfiniBand, however Oracle stated Ethernet has caught up and surpassed InfiniBand giving 100Gb/sec throughput as opposed to 40Gb/sec with InfiniBand which is 2.5 times faster:

IMG_6883

IMG_6910

RoCE uses InfiniBand RDMA software on top of Ethernet, so includes all the optimisation and allows for backwards compatibility:

IMG_6911

Also mentioned is the smart network prioritisation which can prioritise critical database messages such as transaction commits, cache fusion over backups, etc using Class of Service:

IMG_6914

An another nice addition is instance failure detected through use of RoCE, because if all 4 ports don’t respond it confirmed server failure and instantly evicted from cluster:

IMG_6915

Persistent Memory

IMG_6884

The Exadata X8M uses Intel Optane DC persistent memory a new silicon technology that capacity, performance and cost is between DRAM and flash:

IMG_6885

In the Exadata X8M, the persistent memory is shared, just as disks and flash are.  So you get all the benefit of aggregated performance, redundancy, etc:

IMG_6887

The benefit of RoCE with persistent memory is the Persistent Memory Data Accelerator, that allows the database to use RDMA instead of I/O bypassing network and IO software, interrupts, context switches:

IMG_6919

Another benefit of persistent memory is the Memory Commit Accelerator, which like Smart Flash Logging, uses persistent memory to further speed up log writes by 8x using oersistent memory as a buffer which is flushed to flash or disk later on:

IMG_6920

Smart capacity management of persistent memory, so primaries on persistent memory and secondary on flash, which is automatically moved to persistent memory when primary is unavailable:

IMG_6921

If Exadata was not fast enough, all this innovation has lead to the “Worlds Fastest Database Machine” with a astonishing 16 million IOPS with less then 19 microseconds:

IMG_6909

For more information on Exadata X8M can be found here.

Finally Happy OGB Appreciation Day! #ThanksOGB #ThanksODC #ThanksOTN 🙂

If you found this blog post useful, please like as well as follow me through my various Social Media avenues available on the sidebar and/or subscribe to this oracle blog via WordPress/e-mail.

Thanks

Zed DBA (Zahid Anwar)

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Oracle Database File Placement Best Practice & Create Database Demo

This blog post is part of the “RMAN Back to Basics” series, which can be found here.

Introduction

In order for an Oracle Database to be resilient to physical storage failures, i.e. disk failure, it is imperative that the database files are placed according to Best Practice, so to avoid loss of database in case of a storage failure.  For example, don’t have your database and backups on the same disk, because if the disk fails, you have no means to resolve the failure.

This blog post will advise which files need to be protected and how, followed by a demo of creating a new database which shows how Oracle conforms to the best practice when setting a few parameters.

What files comprise a database?

An Oracle database comprises of the following files:

  • spfile
  • password file
  • control files*
  • datafiles including temp files
  • redo logs*

The files marked with * should be multiplexed over a minimum of 2 locations:

Automatic Storage Management (ASM): +DATA and +FRA

  • If HIGH redundancy, Oracle say to use 1 control file and log member to reduce the control file and log file writes.  However this is Availability vs Performance, if Data Guard is in place then this is a more viable recommendation to have 1, but I recommend still to multiple.

Oracle Managed Files: /oradata and /fast_recovery_area

  • Can be prefixed with the Oracle default of /u01/app/oracle as long as the oradata and fast_recovery_area are physically different, i.e. mounts to different disks or mounts to SAN/NAS.

Once the above is conformed to, you will be able to resolve any issues from any scenario, assuming you take backups 🙂

Create Database Demo

Below we create a database called ZEDDBA, using my createZEDDBA.sh script:

[oracle@dc1sbxdb001 scripts]$ ./createZEDDBA.sh
------------------------------
Step 1: Add Database to oratab
------------------------------

Press Enter to continue

adding ZEDDBA to oratab...

Databases in oratab:
ZEDDBA:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1:N

Setting the Database Environment using oraenv...
The Oracle base has been set to /u01/app/oracle

ORACLE_SID: ZEDDBA
ORACLE_HOME: /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1

Press Enter to continue

The script adds the line:

ZEDDBA:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1:N

To the oratab and then sets the environment by using .oraenv in slient mode.

Next the pfile is created from the content shown below:

--------------------
Step 2: Create pfile
--------------------

Press Enter to continue

Content of pfile just created:

db_name='ZEDDBA'
memory_target=2816M
processes = 150
db_block_size=8192
db_create_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/oradata'
db_domain=''
db_recovery_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area'
db_recovery_file_dest_size=10G
diagnostic_dest='u01/app/oracle'
dispatchers='(PROTOCOL=TCP) (SERVICE=ZEDDBAXDB)'
open_cursors=300
remote_login_passwordfile='EXCLUSIVE'
undo_tablespace='UNDOTBS1'
compatible ='12.2.0.1'

Press Enter to continue

--------------------------------
Step 3: Create spfile from pfile
--------------------------------

Press Enter to continue

Calling 'sqlplus / as sysdba'
And running 'create spfile from pfile;'

File created.

Press Enter to continue

PLEASE NOTE: The lines highlighted in red, are the minimum parameters required for Oracle to use Oracle Managed Files (OMF) and multiplex critical files.  This example shows both paths under ‘/u01‘ as an example, which is fine as long as the ‘oradata‘ and ‘fast_recovery_area‘ are physically different as explained earlier on.  They could also be under ‘/u02/oradata‘ for oradata and ‘/u03/fast_recovery_area‘ for fast_recovery_area, which is my personal preference, leaving ‘/u01‘ for oracle binaries.

Next the instance is started in nomount, so to spawn the processes and create the memory structure but not attempt to access controlfiles or datafiles as they do not exist as yet:

-------------------------------------
Step 4: Start the instance in nomount
-------------------------------------

Press Enter to continue

Calling 'sqlplus / as sysdba'
And running 'startup nomount;'

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 2952790016 bytes
Fixed Size 8625080 bytes
Variable Size 1677722696 bytes
Database Buffers 1258291200 bytes
Redo Buffers 8151040 bytes

Press Enter to continue

Next the database is created using the create database statement:

-------------------------------------------------------
Step 5: Create database using create database statement
-------------------------------------------------------

Press Enter to continue

Content of createZEDDBA.sql just created:

CREATE DATABASE ZEDDBA
USER SYS IDENTIFIED BY oracle
USER SYSTEM IDENTIFIED BY oracle
CHARACTER SET AL32UTF8
NATIONAL CHARACTER SET AL16UTF16
EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL
DEFAULT TABLESPACE users
DEFAULT TEMPORARY TABLESPACE tempts1
UNDO TABLESPACE undotbs1;

Press Enter to continue

Calling 'sqlplus / as sysdba'
And running '@?/dbs/createZEDDBA.sql'

Database created.

Press Enter to continue

Please Note: I haven’t specified any control files, datafiles or redo logs.  Oracle will automatically create them based on the settings mentioned earlier.

Next we show the database layout:

----------------------------
Step 6: Show database layout
----------------------------

Press Enter to continue

Calling 'sqlplus / as sysdba'
And running '@?/dbs/showfiles.sql'

Showing 'select name from v$controlfile;' Press Enter to continue

NAME
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/controlfile/o1_mf_gftkqxjg_.ctl
/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/controlfile/o1_mf_gftkqxof_.ctl

Showing 'select GROUP#, TYPE, MEMBER, IS_RECOVERY_DEST_FILE from v$logfile;' Press Enter to continue

GROUP# TYPE MEMBER IS_
---------- ------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---
1 ONLINE /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/onlinelog/o1_mf_1_gftkqy26_.log NO
1 ONLINE /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/onlinelog/o1_mf_1_gftkqzk3_.log YES
2 ONLINE /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/onlinelog/o1_mf_2_gftkqztn_.log NO
2 ONLINE /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/onlinelog/o1_mf_2_gftkr1x7_.log YES

Showing 'select name from v$datafile;' Press Enter to continue

NAME
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_system_gftkr3fv_.dbf
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_gftkr792_.dbf
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_gftkr944_.dbf
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_users_gftkr9fc_.dbf

Showing 'select name from v$tempfile;' Press Enter to continue

NAME
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_tempts1_gftkr9c7_.tmp

Press Enter to exit sqlplus

Press Enter to continue

As you can see the control files and redo logs have automatically multiplexed over ‘oradata‘ and ‘fast_recovery_area‘, where as the rest are in ‘oradata‘.  When backups are taken, they will be in ‘fast_recovery_area‘ which allows for control file and datafiles to be recovered in case of lost of ‘oradata‘ once the physical issue is resolved.

Finally run the rest of the script to run the catelog.sql, cateproc.sql, datapatch, etc to complete the database creation:

----------------------------------------------------
Step 7: run catalog.sql, catproc.sql, datapatch, etc
----------------------------------------------------

Press Enter to continue

...
...
...

Session altered.

SQL Patching tool version 12.2.0.1.0 Production on Thu May 16 12:50:03 2019
Copyright (c) 2012, 2017, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Log file for this invocation: /u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/sqlpatch/sqlpatch_10329_2019_05_16_12_50_03/sqlpatch_invocation.log

Connecting to database...OK
Bootstrapping registry and package to current versions...done
Determining current state...done

Current state of SQL patches:
Patch 25811364 (OJVM RELEASE UPDATE: 12.2.0.1.170718 (25811364)):
Installed in the binary registry only
Bundle series DBRU:
ID 170814 in the binary registry and not installed in the SQL registry

Adding patches to installation queue and performing prereq checks...
Installation queue:
Nothing to roll back
The following patches will be applied:
25811364 (OJVM RELEASE UPDATE: 12.2.0.1.170718 (25811364))
26609817 (DATABASE RELEASE UPDATE 12.2.0.1.170814)

Installing patches...
Patch installation complete. Total patches installed: 2

Validating logfiles...
Patch 25811364 apply: SUCCESS
logfile: /u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/sqlpatch/25811364/21188920/25811364_apply_ZEDDBA_2019May16_12_50_21.log (no errors)
Patch 26609817 apply: SUCCESS
logfile: /u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/sqlpatch/26609817/21483023/26609817_apply_ZEDDBA_2019May16_12_50_21.log (no errors)
SQL Patching tool complete on Thu May 16 12:50:38 2019
Start Time: 16-05-2019_12_20
En Time: 16-05-2019_12_50

Press Enter to exit shell script

[oracle@dc1sbxdb001 scripts]$

Reference

Scripts

  1. createZEDDBA.sh
  2. initZEDDBA.ora
  3. createZEDDBA.sql
  4. showfiles.sql
  5. catalog_catproc.sql

To download all 5 in one zip: createZEDDBA.zip

The above demo is based on Oracle Database 12cR2, installed under “/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1“.  Scripts under “/media/sf_Software/scripts/” which I am running Oracle Linux 7.4 on VirtualBox.  Some modification may be required to work in your environment.

The rest of the series

  1. Oracle Database File Placement Best Practice & Create Database Demo
  2. RMAN Full Backup & Demo
  3. RMAN Image Copy & Demo
  4. RMAN Incremental & Demo Part 1 (Level 0)
  5. RMAN Incremental & Demo Part 2 (Level 1)
  6. RMAN Incremental with Block Change Tracking & Demo
  7. RMAN Incremental Differential vs Cumulative & Demo
  8. RMAN Incremental Updating Backup & Demo Part 1
  9. RMAN Incremental Updating Backup & Demo Part 2
  10. Flashback
  11. RMAN Block Media Recovery
  12. RMAN Recover database with only FRA
  13. RMAN Obsolete

Please Note: Links to the blog posts will be released daily and updated here.

 

If you found this blog post useful, please like as well as follow me through my various Social Media avenues available on the sidebar and/or subscribe to this oracle blog via WordPress/e-mail.

Thanks

Zed DBA (Zahid Anwar)

Adding a Datafile to Temp Tablespace

When monitoring Tablespace Usage (see my Tablespace Usage blog post for more info), there comes a point when you need to add a datafile to the temp tablespace to allow for growth and more importantly get below a monitoring threshold for example in OEM or OpsView.

Query to see Current Temp Datafiles State

To see the current state of the temp datafiles:

set pages 999
set lines 400
col FILE_NAME format a75
select d.TABLESPACE_NAME, d.FILE_NAME, d.BYTES/1024/1024 SIZE_MB, d.AUTOEXTENSIBLE, d.MAXBYTES/1024/1024 MAXSIZE_MB, d.INCREMENT_BY*(v.BLOCK_SIZE/1024)/1024 INCREMENT_BY_MB
from dba_temp_files d,
 v$tempfile v
where d.FILE_ID = v.FILE#
order by d.TABLESPACE_NAME, d.FILE_NAME;

Please Note: For pluggable databases, please ensure you are in the right PDB as temp datafiles can be at container level and/or pluggable database level.

Output from Current Temp Datafiles State

This is the output you will get from the query:

TABLESPACE_NAME FILE_NAME SIZE_MB AUT MAXSIZE_MB INCREMENT_BY_MB
------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- --- ---------- ---------------
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.451.891367325 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.452.891367321 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.454.891367305 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.455.891367301 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.457.891367299 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.458.891367295 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.459.891367159 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.461.891367165 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.463.891367201 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.465.891367203 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.466.891367207 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.468.891367223 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.469.891367227 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.471.891367243 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.472.891367251 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.473.891367255 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.475.891367261 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.477.891367289 32767 YES 32767 1024
...

38 rows selected.

SQL>

The … represents the several lines removed to make the output readable 🙂

Add Temp Datafile to Temp Tablespace

To add a temp datafile to ‘TEMP‘ to be initially 10G, auto extendable by 1G to maxsize of 32Gb:

ALTER TABLESPACE TEMP ADD TEMPFILE '+DATAC1' SIZE 10G AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 1G MAXSIZE 32767M;

See Oracle Documentation for more info and Syntax:
https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/SQLRF/statements_3002.htm

Once added you’ll see the temp datafile in the above query:

TABLESPACE_NAME FILE_NAME SIZE_MB AUT MAXSIZE_MB INCREMENT_BY_MB
------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- --- ---------- ---------------
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.451.891367325 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.452.891367321 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.454.891367305 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.455.891367301 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.457.891367299 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.458.891367295 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.459.891367159 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.461.891367165 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.463.891367201 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.465.891367203 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.466.891367207 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.468.891367223 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.469.891367227 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.471.891367243 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.472.891367251 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.473.891367255 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.475.891367261 32767 YES 32767 1024
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.477.891367289 32767 YES 32767 1024
...
TEMP +DATAC1/VERS/TEMPFILE/temp.843.973079825 10240 YES 32767 1024

39 rows selected.

SQL>

Related Blog Posts:
Querying Tablespace Usage
Adding a Datafile to Tablespace

Updates
27th April 2018: Change the query to use v$tempfile instead of v$datafile as doesn’t work for PDBs.

If you found this blog post useful, please like as well as follow me through my various Social Media avenues available on the sidebar and/or subscribe to this oracle blog via WordPress/e-mail.

Thanks

Zed DBA (Zahid Anwar)

How to Enable Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache

Please check the following blog post “How to check if Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache is Enabled” for:

  • What is Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache?
  • What are the Performance Benefits of Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache?
  • How to check if Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache is Enabled?
  • Pre-requisites and minimum versions.

You can also get more info from My Oracle Support (MOS) note:
Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache – FAQ (Doc ID 1500257.1)
OTN Article: Oracle Exadata Database Machine – Write-Back Flash Cache

How to Enable Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache

PLEASE NOTE: Although I have illustrated the steps below, please cross check with the MOS note to ensure the method below matches your setup or the steps haven’t changed with future releases (after the time of writing).

With Exadata software 11.2.3.3.1 or higher, it is not required to stop the cellsrv process on the storage cells or to inactivate griddisk.  If you are 11.2.3.2.1 to 11.2.3.3.0, the refer to the MOS notes for additional steps.

It is recommend to enabled Write-Back Flash Cache during a period of reduced workload to reduce the performance impact on the database.

Before proceeding with the enabling of Write-Back Flash Cache, it is recommended to check the caching policy of the grid disks, as we don’t want to enable Write-Back Flash Cache for grid disks that don’t need it i.e. RECO and DBFS disk groups:

[root@v1oex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -l root -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group cellcli -e list griddisk attributes name,cachingpolicy,cachedby
 v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: DBFS_DG_CD_02_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: DBFS_DG_CD_03_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: DBFS_DG_CD_04_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: DBFS_DG_CD_05_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DBFS_DG_CD_02_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DBFS_DG_CD_03_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DBFS_DG_CD_04_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DBFS_DG_CD_05_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DBFS_DG_CD_02_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DBFS_DG_CD_03_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DBFS_DG_CD_04_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DBFS_DG_CD_05_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm03 default
 [root@v1oex2dbadm01 ~]#

As you can see, all the grid disks have default caching policy.  As per the following MOS note, we disable caching for RECO and DBFS disk groups:
Oracle Exadata Database Machine Setup/Configuration Best Practices (Doc ID 1274318.1)

[root@v1oex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -c v1oex2celadm01 -l root cellcli -e alter griddisk DBFS_DG_CD_02_v1oex2celadm01,DBFS_DG_CD_03_v1oex2celadm01,DBFS_DG_CD_04_v1oex2celadm01,DBFS_DG_CD_05_v1oex2celadm01 cachingPolicy="none"
 v1oex2celadm01: GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_02_v1oex2celadm01 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm01: GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_03_v1oex2celadm01 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm01: GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_04_v1oex2celadm01 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm01: GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_05_v1oex2celadm01 successfully altered
[root@v1oex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -c v1oex2celadm02 -l root cellcli -e alter griddisk DBFS_DG_CD_02_v1oex2celadm02,DBFS_DG_CD_03_v1oex2celadm02,DBFS_DG_CD_04_v1oex2celadm02,DBFS_DG_CD_05_v1oex2celadm02 cachingPolicy="none"
 v1oex2celadm02: GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_02_v1oex2celadm02 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm02: GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_03_v1oex2celadm02 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm02: GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_04_v1oex2celadm02 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm02: GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_05_v1oex2celadm02 successfully altered
[root@v1oex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -c v1oex2celadm03 -l root cellcli -e alter griddisk DBFS_DG_CD_02_v1oex2celadm03,DBFS_DG_CD_03_v1oex2celadm03,DBFS_DG_CD_04_v1oex2celadm03,DBFS_DG_CD_05_v1oex2celadm03 cachingPolicy="none"
 v1oex2celadm03: GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_02_v1oex2celadm03 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm03: GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_03_v1oex2celadm03 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm03: GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_04_v1oex2celadm03 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm03: GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_05_v1oex2celadm03 successfully altered 
[root@v1oex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -c v1oex2celadm01 -l root cellcli -e alter griddisk RECOC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm01,RECOC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm01,RECOC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm01,RECOC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm01,RECOC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm01,RECOC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm01 cachingPolicy="none"
 v1oex2celadm01: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm01 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm01: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm01 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm01: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm01 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm01: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm01 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm01: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm01 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm01: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm01 successfully altered 
[root@v1oex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -c v1oex2celadm02 -l root cellcli -e alter griddisk RECOC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm02,RECOC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm02,RECOC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm02,RECOC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm02,RECOC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm02,RECOC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm02 cachingPolicy="none"
 v1oex2celadm02: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm02 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm02: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm02 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm02: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm02 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm02: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm02 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm02: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm02 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm02: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm02 successfully altered
[root@v1oex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -c v1oex2celadm03 -l root cellcli -e alter griddisk RECOC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm03,RECOC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm03,RECOC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm03,RECOC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm03,RECOC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm03,RECOC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm03 cachingPolicy="none"
 v1oex2celadm03: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm03 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm03: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm03 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm03: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm03 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm03: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm03 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm03: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm03 successfully altered
 v1oex2celadm03: GridDisk RECOC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm03 successfully altered
[root@v1oex2dbadm01 ~]#

Now when we enabling of Write-Back Flash Cache, it will not cache for grid disks for RECO and DBFS disk group, avoiding the need to flush to disk and change policy as post step:

[root@v1oex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group -l root cellcli -e list griddisk attributes name,cachingpolicy,cachedby
 v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm01 default
 v1oex2celadm01: DBFS_DG_CD_02_v1oex2celadm01 none
 v1oex2celadm01: DBFS_DG_CD_03_v1oex2celadm01 none
 v1oex2celadm01: DBFS_DG_CD_04_v1oex2celadm01 none
 v1oex2celadm01: DBFS_DG_CD_05_v1oex2celadm01 none
 v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm01 none
 v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm01 none
 v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm01 none
 v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm01 none
 v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm01 none
 v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm01 none
 v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm02 default
 v1oex2celadm02: DBFS_DG_CD_02_v1oex2celadm02 none
 v1oex2celadm02: DBFS_DG_CD_03_v1oex2celadm02 none
 v1oex2celadm02: DBFS_DG_CD_04_v1oex2celadm02 none
 v1oex2celadm02: DBFS_DG_CD_05_v1oex2celadm02 none
 v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm02 none
 v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm02 none
 v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm02 none
 v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm02 none
 v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm02 none
 v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm02 none
 v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm03 default
 v1oex2celadm03: DBFS_DG_CD_02_v1oex2celadm03 none
 v1oex2celadm03: DBFS_DG_CD_03_v1oex2celadm03 none
 v1oex2celadm03: DBFS_DG_CD_04_v1oex2celadm03 none
 v1oex2celadm03: DBFS_DG_CD_05_v1oex2celadm03 none
 v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm03 none
 v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm03 none
 v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm03 none
 v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm03 none
 v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm03 none
 v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm03 none
 [root@v1oex2dbadm01 ~]#

Next we check that all the grid disks on all storage cells have the asmdeactivationoutcome and asmmodestatus as “Yes” and “ONLINE” respectively.

[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group -l root cellcli -e list griddisk attributes asmdeactivationoutcome, asmmodestatus
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm01: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm02: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
v1ex2celadm03: Yes ONLINE
[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]#

Next we check that all of the Flash Cache are in the “normal” state and that no flash disks are in a degraded or critical state:

[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group -l root cellcli -e list flashcache detail
v1ex2celadm01: name: v1ex2celadm01_FLASHCACHE
v1ex2celadm01: cellDisk: FD_01_v1ex2celadm01,FD_00_v1ex2celadm01
v1ex2celadm01: creationTime: 2015-07-01T13:39:22+01:00
v1ex2celadm01: degradedCelldisks:
v1ex2celadm01: effectiveCacheSize: 2.910369873046875T
v1ex2celadm01: id: 655bdb7a-8d3b-40e5-88af-cd42843dd3f7
v1ex2celadm01: size: 2.910369873046875T
v1ex2celadm01: status: normal
v1ex2celadm02: name: v1ex2celadm02_FLASHCACHE
v1ex2celadm02: cellDisk: FD_01_v1ex2celadm02,FD_00_v1ex2celadm02
v1ex2celadm02: creationTime: 2015-07-01T06:38:05+01:00
v1ex2celadm02: degradedCelldisks:
v1ex2celadm02: effectiveCacheSize: 2.910369873046875T
v1ex2celadm02: id: 1cc0f7a4-885a-4e23-aec5-b47bc488e8e3
v1ex2celadm02: size: 2.910369873046875T
v1ex2celadm02: status: normal
v1ex2celadm03: name: v1ex2celadm03_FLASHCACHE
v1ex2celadm03: cellDisk: FD_01_v1ex2celadm03,FD_00_v1ex2celadm03
v1ex2celadm03: creationTime: 2015-07-01T20:39:30+01:00
v1ex2celadm03: degradedCelldisks:
v1ex2celadm03: effectiveCacheSize: 2.910369873046875T
v1ex2celadm03: id: b07f6011-1d66-4c3f-a25f-26d1e6b55633
v1ex2celadm03: size: 2.910369873046875T
v1ex2celadm03: status: normal
[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]#

Next we validate all the Physical Disks are in the “NORMAL” state before we modify the Flash Cache:

[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -l root -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group cellcli -e "list physicaldisk attributes name,status"
v1ex2celadm01: 8:0 normal
v1ex2celadm01: 8:1 normal
v1ex2celadm01: 8:2 normal
v1ex2celadm01: 8:3 normal
v1ex2celadm01: 8:4 normal
v1ex2celadm01: 8:5 normal
v1ex2celadm01: 8:6 normal
v1ex2celadm01: 8:7 normal
v1ex2celadm01: 8:8 normal
v1ex2celadm01: 8:9 normal
v1ex2celadm01: 8:10 normal
v1ex2celadm01: 8:11 normal
v1ex2celadm01: FLASH_1_1 normal
v1ex2celadm01: FLASH_2_1 normal
v1ex2celadm01: FLASH_4_1 normal
v1ex2celadm01: FLASH_5_1 normal
v1ex2celadm02: 8:0 normal
v1ex2celadm02: 8:1 normal
v1ex2celadm02: 8:2 normal
v1ex2celadm02: 8:3 normal
v1ex2celadm02: 8:4 normal
v1ex2celadm02: 8:5 normal
v1ex2celadm02: 8:6 normal
v1ex2celadm02: 8:7 normal
v1ex2celadm02: 8:8 normal
v1ex2celadm02: 8:9 normal
v1ex2celadm02: 8:10 normal
v1ex2celadm02: 8:11 normal
v1ex2celadm02: FLASH_1_1 normal
v1ex2celadm02: FLASH_2_1 normal
v1ex2celadm02: FLASH_4_1 normal
v1ex2celadm02: FLASH_5_1 normal
v1ex2celadm03: 8:0 normal
v1ex2celadm03: 8:1 normal
v1ex2celadm03: 8:2 normal
v1ex2celadm03: 8:3 normal
v1ex2celadm03: 8:4 normal
v1ex2celadm03: 8:5 normal
v1ex2celadm03: 8:6 normal
v1ex2celadm03: 8:7 normal
v1ex2celadm03: 8:8 normal
v1ex2celadm03: 8:9 normal
v1ex2celadm03: 8:10 normal
v1ex2celadm03: 8:11 normal
v1ex2celadm03: FLASH_1_1 normal
v1ex2celadm03: FLASH_2_1 normal
v1ex2celadm03: FLASH_4_1 normal
v1ex2celadm03: FLASH_5_1 normal
[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]#

You can run the same command with inverse grep on “normal” to ensure you didn’t miss any disks that are not normal:

[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -l root -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group cellcli -e "list physicaldisk attributes name,status"|grep -v normal
[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]#

Next we drop the Flash Cache to be able to change the attribute:

PLEASE NOTE: Any data that is currently cached in Flash Cache and being served will then need to be served by Hard Disks and a noticeable performance degradation will be observed.  Hence it is recommend to enabled Write-Back Flash Cache during a period of reduced workload to reduce the performance impact on the database.

[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -l root -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group cellcli -e drop flashcache 
v1ex2celadm01: Flash cache v1ex2celadm01_FLASHCACHE successfully dropped 
v1ex2celadm02: Flash cache v1ex2celadm02_FLASHCACHE successfully dropped 
v1ex2celadm03: Flash cache v1ex2celadm03_FLASHCACHE successfully dropped 
[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]#

Next we set the “flashCacheMode” attribute to “writeback“:

[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -l root -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group cellcli -e "alter cell flashCacheMode=writeback"
v1ex2celadm01: Cell v1ex2celadm01 successfully altered
v1ex2celadm02: Cell v1ex2celadm02 successfully altered
v1ex2celadm03: Cell v1ex2celadm03 successfully altered
[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]#

Next we re-create the Flash Cache, which will be in Write-Back instead of WriteThrough:

[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -l root -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group cellcli -e create flashcache all
v1ex2celadm01: Flash cache v1ex2celadm01_FLASHCACHE successfully created
v1ex2celadm02: Flash cache v1ex2celadm02_FLASHCACHE successfully created
v1ex2celadm03: Flash cache v1ex2celadm03_FLASHCACHE successfully created
[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]#

Next we check the attribute “flashCacheMode” is actually now “writeback“:

[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group -l root cellcli -e "list cell attributes flashcachemode"
v1ex2celadm01: writeback
v1ex2celadm02: writeback
v1ex2celadm03: writeback
[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]#

At this point, write I/O will go straight to flash and then can be moved to hard disk if aged or not required for read caching.  The Flash Cache will be repopulated over time and performance will return to normal for reads with addition performance for writes 🙂

You can check the usage increase as Flash Cache repopulates as follows:

[root@v1oex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group -l root cellcli -e LIST METRICCURRENT FC_BY_USED
 v1oex2celadm01: FC_BY_USED FLASHCACHE 104,838 MB
 v1oex2celadm02: FC_BY_USED FLASHCACHE 104,479 MB
 v1oex2celadm03: FC_BY_USED FLASHCACHE 105,192 MB
[root@v1oex2dbadm01 ~]#

Finally, we validate grid disk attributes cachingPolicy and cachedby, where we can see only the DATA disk group is being cached by Flash Cache and by which Flash Disk:

[root@v1oex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group -l root cellcli -e list griddisk attributes name,cachingpolicy,cachedby
v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm01 default FD_01_v1oex2celadm01
v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm01 default FD_01_v1oex2celadm01
v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm01 default FD_00_v1oex2celadm01
v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm01 default FD_00_v1oex2celadm01
v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm01 default FD_01_v1oex2celadm01
v1oex2celadm01: DATAC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm01 default FD_00_v1oex2celadm01
v1oex2celadm01: DBFS_DG_CD_02_v1oex2celadm01 none
v1oex2celadm01: DBFS_DG_CD_03_v1oex2celadm01 none
v1oex2celadm01: DBFS_DG_CD_04_v1oex2celadm01 none
v1oex2celadm01: DBFS_DG_CD_05_v1oex2celadm01 none
v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm01 none
v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm01 none
v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm01 none
v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm01 none
v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm01 none
v1oex2celadm01: RECOC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm01 none
v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm02 default FD_01_v1oex2celadm02
v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm02 default FD_00_v1oex2celadm02
v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm02 default FD_01_v1oex2celadm02
v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm02 default FD_01_v1oex2celadm02
v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm02 default FD_00_v1oex2celadm02
v1oex2celadm02: DATAC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm02 default FD_00_v1oex2celadm02
v1oex2celadm02: DBFS_DG_CD_02_v1oex2celadm02 none
v1oex2celadm02: DBFS_DG_CD_03_v1oex2celadm02 none
v1oex2celadm02: DBFS_DG_CD_04_v1oex2celadm02 none
v1oex2celadm02: DBFS_DG_CD_05_v1oex2celadm02 none
v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm02 none
v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm02 none
v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm02 none
v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm02 none
v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm02 none
v1oex2celadm02: RECOC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm02 none
v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm03 default FD_01_v1oex2celadm03
v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm03 default FD_01_v1oex2celadm03
v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm03 default FD_00_v1oex2celadm03
v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm03 default FD_00_v1oex2celadm03
v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm03 default FD_01_v1oex2celadm03
v1oex2celadm03: DATAC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm03 default FD_00_v1oex2celadm03
v1oex2celadm03: DBFS_DG_CD_02_v1oex2celadm03 none
v1oex2celadm03: DBFS_DG_CD_03_v1oex2celadm03 none
v1oex2celadm03: DBFS_DG_CD_04_v1oex2celadm03 none
v1oex2celadm03: DBFS_DG_CD_05_v1oex2celadm03 none
v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_00_v1oex2celadm03 none
v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_01_v1oex2celadm03 none
v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_02_v1oex2celadm03 none
v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_03_v1oex2celadm03 none
v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_04_v1oex2celadm03 none
v1oex2celadm03: RECOC1_CD_05_v1oex2celadm03 none
[root@v1oex2dbadm01 ~]#

Final note, there is a script provided by Oracle that can do this all for you called setWBFC, however the version 1.0.0.2.1.20160602 didn’t work for me as it detected 4 Flash Disks in eighth rack when it expected 2.  Although there are only 2 in use in eighth rack, there are 4 physically present, so I believe this is a bug.  I did raise an SR with Oracle Support, which is yet to be concluded.  Below is the output for those who are interested:

[root@v1oex2dbadm01 WBFC]# ./setWBFC.sh
 setWBFC Version: 1.0.0.2.1.20160602
 Usage:
 ./setWBFC.sh -g cell_group_file [-d dbs_group_file ]
 [ -h ] [ -i ] [ -l log_directory ]
 [ -m WriteBack | WriteThrough ] [ -o rolling | non-rolling ]
 [ -p ] [ -s step_number ] [ -t time_out_seconds ]
 [ -x trace_level ] [ -v ]

-g file file that lists cell host names, one per line
 -d file file that lists the database host names, one
 per line. Required for non-rolling.
 -h help, print this information
 -i run in interactive mode
 -l log directory directory path for log files
 -m FC_mode flashcache mode: WriteBack | WriteThrough
 -o exec_mode execution mode: rolling | non-rolling (default)
 -p perform a precheck only
 -s step # (*) specify step number to restart at
 -t timeout sec specify in seconds the amount of time to wait
 for griddisks to come ONLINE - range: [600 - 43200]
 Default: 21600 (6 hours)
 -x trace level # specify trace level for further diagnostics
 -v show version

(*) -- Option not yet implemented.

 [root@v1oex2dbadm01 WBFC]# ./setWBFC.sh -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group -l /root/v1/WBFC/logs -m WriteBack -o rolling -p
 ./setWBFC.sh: Using log directory '/root/v1/WBFC/logs'
 ./setWBFC.sh: Log File '/root/v1/WBFC/logs/setWBFC_18335_2018-01-17-10:46:26.log' created successfully
 2018-01-17 10:46:26
 Starting ./setWBFC.sh on v1oex2dbadm01
 Version: 1.0.0.2.1.20160602
 Command line options used:
 -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group
 -o rolling
 -m WriteBack
 -p (Perform pre-req checks only)
 -t 21600
 -x 0

2018-01-17 10:46:26
 Performing pre-req checks.....
 2018-01-17 10:46:26
 Creating baseline inventory for griddisks
 2018-01-17 10:46:27
 Creating baseline inventory for flashdisks
 2018-01-17 10:46:28
 Creating baseline inventory for flashsize
 2018-01-17 10:46:28
 dcli present and in PATH. [PASSED]
 2018-01-17 10:46:28
 Checking cell nodes are valid storage servers...
 2018-01-17 10:46:29
 All cells are valid Exadata storage cells.
 2018-01-17 10:46:29
 Checking Exadata Storage Software Versions...
 2018-01-17 10:46:33
 Software versions of the following cells:
 v1oex2celadm01: 12.1.2.3.5.170418 [PASSED]
 v1oex2celadm02: 12.1.2.3.5.170418 [PASSED]
 v1oex2celadm03: 12.1.2.3.5.170418 [PASSED]

2018-01-17 10:46:33
 Checking Grid Infrastructure Software Version...
 2018-01-17 10:46:38
 Grid Infrastructure version: 12.1.0.2.00 [PASSED]

2018-01-17 10:46:38
 Checking for active ASM operations....
 2018-01-17 10:46:38
 Check for no active ASM operations: [PASSED]
 2018-01-17 10:46:38
 Checking griddisk status across all cells....
 2018-01-17 10:46:39
 All griddisks across all cells have asmdeactivationoutcome = Yes
 All griddisks across all cells are ONLINE
 Griddisk checks: [PASSED]
 2018-01-17 10:46:39
 Checking flash cache status.....
 2018-01-17 10:46:40
 Flashcache status normal: [PASSED]
 2018-01-17 10:46:40
 Checking that all FlashDisks are present...
 2018-01-17 10:46:42
 Cell v1oex2celadm01 has one or more FlashDisk missing. Expecting 2 but found 4

2018-01-17 10:46:42
 FlashDisk validation: [FAILED]
 2018-01-17 10:46:42
 Checking current flash cache mode.....
 2018-01-17 10:46:43
 Flashcache not already in target mode: [PASSED]
 2018-01-17 10:46:43
 Pre-req checks failed with status 7. Exiting....

[root@v1oex2dbadm01 WBFC]#

If this works for you, great then I would recommend using this method, otherwise it can be used to double check the pre-requisites at least and then you can do manually as I did shown above 🙂

If you found this blog post useful, please like as well as follow me through my various Social Media avenues available on the sidebar and/or subscribe to this oracle blog via WordPress/e-mail.

Thanks

Zed DBA (Zahid Anwar)

How to check if Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache is Enabled

What is Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache?

Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache provides the ability to cache not only read I/Os but write I/O to the Exadata’s PCI flash on the storage cells.  Exadata storage software 11.2.3.2.1 or higher and Grid Infrastructure and Database software 11.2.0.3.9 or higher is required to use Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache, which is persistent across storage cell restarts.

The default since April 2017 for the Oracle Exadata Deployment Assistant (OEDA) is Write-Back Flash Cache when DATA diskgroup is HIGH redundancy and Grid Infrastructure and Database software are:

  • 11.2.0.4.1 or higher
  • 12.1.0.2 or higher
  • 12.2.0.2 or higher

PLEASE NOTE: This option is only applicable to High Capacity as Extreme Flash doesn’t have Hard Disks and therefore Write-Back Flash Cache is explicitly enabled and can’t be disabled.

What are the Performance Benefit of Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache?

Write-Back Flash Cache can significantly improve write intensive operations because writing to Flash Cache is significantly faster than writing to Hard Disks.  Depending on the workload, write performance (IOPS) can be improved by 10x on older generations of Exadata Machines V2 and X2 and 20x on newer generations X3 onwards (correct at time of writing).

If you are experiencing high write I/O times on storage cells from AWR Reports or Storage Cell metrics, then you should consider enabling Write-Back Flash Cache to alleviate write operations on Hard Disks and move to Flash Cache.

See the following My Oracle Support (MOS) Note for more info:
Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache – FAQ (Doc ID 1500257.1)

How to check if Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache is Enabled?

To check if Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache is enabled, run “list cell attributes flashcachemode” on the storage cell using CellCLI as shown below:

[root@v1ex2celadm01 ~]# cellcli
CellCLI: Release 12.1.2.3.5 - Production on Wed Jan 17 10:09:51 GMT 2018

Copyright (c) 2007, 2016, Oracle. All rights reserved.

CellCLI> list cell attributes flashcachemode
 WriteThrough

CellCLI> exit
quitting

[root@v1ex2celadm01 ~]#

If “WriteThrough” then Write-Back Flash Cache is disabled (writes go straight to hard disk and then can be placed in flash for caching reads if required), otherwise if “WriteBack” then Write-Back Flash Cache is enabled as the name suggests (writes go straight to flash and then can be moved to hard disk if aged or not required for read caching).

You can also run “list cell detail” using CellCLI as shown below:

[root@v1ex2celadm01 ~]# cellcli
CellCLI: Release 12.1.2.3.5 - Production on Wed Jan 17 10:10:22 GMT 2018

Copyright (c) 2007, 2016, Oracle. All rights reserved.

CellCLI> list cell detail
 name: v1ex2celadm01
 accessLevelPerm: remoteLoginEnabled
 bbuStatus: normal
 cellVersion: OSS_12.1.2.3.5_LINUX.X64_170418
 cpuCount: 16/32
 diagHistoryDays: 7
 eighthRack: TRUE
 fanCount: 8/8
 fanStatus: normal
 flashCacheMode: WriteThrough
 id: xxxxxxxxxx
 interconnectCount: 2
 interconnect1: ib0
 interconnect2: ib1
 iormBoost: 6.4
 ipaddress1: 10.1.11.14/22
 ipaddress2: 10.1.11.15/22
 kernelVersion: 2.6.39-400.294.4.el6uek.x86_64
 locatorLEDStatus: off
 makeModel: Oracle Corporation ORACLE SERVER X5-2L High Capacity
 memoryGB: 95
 metricHistoryDays: 7
 notificationMethod: snmp
 notificationPolicy: critical,warning,clear
 offloadGroupEvents:
 powerCount: 2/2
 powerStatus: normal
 releaseImageStatus: success
 releaseVersion: 12.1.2.3.5.170418
 rpmVersion: cell-12.1.2.3.5_LINUX.X64_170418-1.x86_64
 releaseTrackingBug: 25509078
 rollbackVersion: 12.1.2.3.4.170111
 securityCert: PrivateKey OK
 Certificate: Subject CN=v1ex2celadm01.v1.com,OU=Oracle Exadata,O=Oracle Corporation,L=Redwood City,ST=California,C=US
 Issuer CN=v1ex2celadm01.v1.com,OU=Oracle Exadata,O=Oracle Corporation,L=Redwood City,ST=California,C=US
 snmpSubscriber: host=v1ex2dbadm02.v1.com,port=1830,community=public
 host=v1ex2dbadm01.v1.com,port=1830,community=public
 host=v1ex2dbadm01.v1.com,port=3872,community=public
 host=v1ex2dbadm02.v1.com,port=3872,community=public
 status: online
 temperatureReading: 24.0
 temperatureStatus: normal
 upTime: 105 days, 7:35
 usbStatus: normal
 cellsrvStatus: running
 msStatus: running
 rsStatus: running

CellCLI> exit
quitting

[root@v1ex2celadm01 ~]#

However, the simpler way to check is via dcli, especially when you have lots of storage cells as shown below:

[root@v1ex2dbadm01 ~]# dcli -g /opt/oracle.SupportTools/onecommand/cell_group -l root cellcli -e "list cell attributes flashcachemode"
v1ex2celadm01: WriteThrough
v1ex2celadm02: WriteThrough
v1ex2celadm03: WriteThrough

Related Posts:
How to Enable Exadata Write-Back Flash Cache

If you found this blog post useful, please like as well as follow me through my various Social Media avenues available on the sidebar and/or subscribe to this oracle blog via WordPress/e-mail.

Thanks

Zed DBA (Zahid Anwar)

VMware Expert Database Workshop Program Oracle Edition – Day 3

Day 3 kicked off again with another early start at 7am, yawn 🙂

Again, it was a very intense day, with lots of presentations and then ending with video interviews of each attendee:

  • Dean Bolton from VLSS, talked to us about “License Fortress from VLSS”
    • Very interesting product, where VLSS can advise you how to run your Oracle on VMware, then protect you from Oracle with the License Fortress guarantee, that has lawyers ready to defend you in case of license compliance backed by an insurance policy if required.  So the customer is never at risk when they take out the “License Fortress from VLSS”.
    • Plug for my current employer who also offer License Audit Consulting.
  • Chris Rohan from VMware, talked to us about “VMware vSphere Core & SDDC – Networking – NSX & VCNS”
  • Marcus Thordal from Brocade, talked to us about “Brocade and VMware Technology and the VMware Solutions Lab”
    • Interestingly Brocade have worked out a way to tag network packets, so you can identify which VM guest is causing network traffic
    • Also had a good example of how NVMe is causing need to higher network bandwidth
  • Simon Guyennet from VMware, talked to us about “Emerging Products” & “VMware Integrated Containers and Oracle”
    • Lot of NDA stuff, so those interested in this area, keep a look out, some interesting stuff coming soon 🙂
  • Mike Adams from VMware, talked to us about “The CPBU, vSphere and Friends, and the Experts Program”
    • Key take away that was not NDA, is VMware on AWS that is currently available to select customers and will be Generally Available soon 🙂
  • Somu Rajarathinam and Ron Ekins from Pure Storage gave a Technical Session
  • Feidhlim O’Leary from VMware, talked to us about “High Availability and Disaster Recovery in the SDDC”
  • Alain Geenrits from Blue Medora, talked to us about “Management & Monitoring – Blue Medora and Oracle on vSphere”
  • Daniel Hesselink from License Consulting, talked to us about “License Audit with License Consulting”
  • The duo Sudhir Balasubramanian and Mohan Potheri, talked to us about “vSphere HA or Oracle RAC, SRM or Data Guard, they are all complimentary when Oracle is run in the SDDC”
    • I enjoyed the labs from this duo, with their “good cop, bad cop” style 🙂

The workshop ended with a short video interview, where we were each asked to introduce ourselves, answer a few questions about the workshop and Pure Storage.  I’m not the best at this sort of things, so I don’t think I’ll end up in the marketing video of the event, but time will tell 🙂

My OCM buddy Yvonne Murphy, then gave a few of us an extended tour of the Global Support Services (GSS) whilst we waited for the shuttle back to the hotel.

Then it was a quick chauffeured ride to the airport and a short flight back home to Manchester.

Another great day that concluded the workshop, it increased my knowledge of VMware and gave me a great opportunity to network with Oracle Database Experts from around Europe 🙂

Many thanks to VMware and Pure Storage for organising this workshop and allowing me to be a part of it 🙂

My tweets for the day can be seen here.

The VMware Expert Database Workshop Program hashtag is #VMWORA

My related Blog Posts

VMware Expert Database Workshop Program Oracle Edition
VMware Expert Database Workshop Program Oracle Edition – Day 1
VMware Expert Database Workshop Program Oracle Edition – Day 2

Other related Blog Posts

Tim Hall (Oracle Base) – VMware Expert Database Workshop Program Oracle Edition
Tim Hall (Oracle Base) – VMware Workshop – The Journey Begins
Tim Hall (Oracle Base) – VMware Workshop – Day 1
Tim Hall (Oracle Base) – VMware Workshop – Day 2
Tim Hall (Oracle Base) – VMware Workshop – Day 3
Michael Corey (Columnist) – VMware Experts Program Oracle Edition
Michael Corey (Columnist) – Day 1 VMware Experts Program Oracle Edition
Michael Corey (Columnist) – Day 2 VMware Experts Program Oracle Edition

If you found this blog post useful, please like as well as follow me through my various Social Media avenues available on the sidebar and/or subscribe to this oracle blog via WordPress/e-mail.

Thanks

Zed DBA (Zahid Anwar)

VMware Expert Database Workshop Program Oracle Edition – Day 2

Day 2 kicked off again with another early start at 7am, coupled with the late night, I was a bit tired to say the least, but was all worth it 🙂

Again, it was a very intense day, with lots of presentations and technical deep dives, ending with a lab session:

  • My OCM buddy Yvonne Murphy, kicked the day off by talking to us about “The Best Oracle Support Team on Earth – Global Support Services Oracle Team”
  • Dave Welch, House of Brick, talked to us about “Oracle on vSphere Licensing”
    • Some interesting Oracle license cases of which the main one discussed is available here
  • Jad El-Zein, talked to us about “vRealizeAutomation and Oracle”
  • Andreas Scherr, talked to us about “vSphere Core Storage Fundamentals” & “Modern Converged Storage, & vSAN & vVols”
    • I was impressed with the vSAN concept of using spare drive bays in an ESXi host to put a Hard Disks or SSD Drives in and/or using spare PCIe slots to put a Flash Cards in (including NVMe 🙂 )
    • Then these server attached storage devices are pooled together to provide a shared Datastore that has resilience built in using software rather then hardware 🙂
    • Can be all flash or hybird but each ESXi needs a cache device i.e. SSD Drive or Flash Card
    • More info can be found here
  • Valentin Bondzio, gave us an very enjoyable deep dive on CPU usage in Virtual Environment and how to troubleshoot 🙂
  • We then finished the day with a lab session with Sudhir Bala and Mohan Potheri, where we got to for example:
    • Create a Virtual Hard Drive
    • Attach an Existing Virtual Hard Drive (useful for RAC clusters 🙂 )
    • Then we played a game to stress test a Pure Storage, however I could only get 2Gb a second using 10 sessions running a parallel query of 10 on the largest object in the database.  This is not because the Pure Storage but because of I/O queue in the VMware stack, which we didn’t get time to change but highlight the point 🙂

Another great day of the 3 days workshop, in which I got to gain even more new knowledge in regards to VMware, in particular CPU usage and vSAN 🙂

The day ended with a meal and drinks at The Oliver Plunkett, more socialising with Johannes AhrendsRon EkinsFrits HooglandTim Hall and Mohan Potheri.  Then a nice walk back to the hotel with Mohan PotheriJohannes Ahrends and Martin Klier.  It’s a small world as I found Martin Klier and I had overlap with some customers and people 🙂  The socialising then continued in the reception lounge with Carl Dudley, Ron EkinsFrits Hoogland and Tim Hall.

Many thanks to VMware and Pure Storage, I’m looking forward to the rest of the workshop 🙂

My tweets for the day can be seen here.

The VMware Expert Database Workshop Program hashtag is #VMWORA

My related Blog Posts

VMware Expert Database Workshop Program Oracle Edition
VMware Expert Database Workshop Program Oracle Edition – Day 1

Other related Blog Posts

Tim Hall (Oracle Base) – VMware Expert Database Workshop Program Oracle Edition
Tim Hall (Oracle Base) – VMware Workshop – The Journey Begins
Tim Hall (Oracle Base) – VMware Workshop – Day 1
Tim Hall (Oracle Base) – VMware Workshop – Day 2
Michael Corey (Columnist) – VMware Experts Program Oracle Edition
Michael Corey (Columnist) – Day 1 VMware Experts Program Oracle Edition
Michael Corey (Columnist) – Day 2 VMware Experts Program Oracle Edition

If you found this blog post useful, please like as well as follow me through my various Social Media avenues available on the sidebar and/or subscribe to this oracle blog via WordPress/e-mail.

Thanks

Zed DBA (Zahid Anwar)