RMAN Full Backup & Demo

This blog post is part of the “RMAN Back to Basics” series, which can be found here.

Full Backup

A full backup is a backup of all the database’s data which excludes free space and stores in RMAN backup pieces.  For example, if you have a newly created database with datafiles added that initial size of 10GB, the 10GB from each datafiles is mainly just free space and hence RMAN does not backup the free space, thus space efficient.

Archive Log Mode

When DML (Data Manipulation Language) is ran against a database, this is stored in online redo logs, so Oracle can reply DML in case of crash recovery to ensure database is consistent and that all committed data is present.  Online redo logs fill up and Oracle move onto the next group till reaches the last one and then go back to the first one, but in order to maintain the redo, Oracle “archive” the online redo log to archive logs, hence the word “archive”.

Archive redo logs along with online redo logs are required to recovery a database after a restored, because if the database is open it’s a moving target and the DML will need to be replayed so the the first and last datafile that were backups are consistent i.e. at the same point (SCN) if doing incomplete recovery.  Complete recovery is when all the archive redo logs and then online redo logs are applied, taking the database to the current SCN before the restore was done i.e. no data loss.

Demos

Enable Archive Log Mode

Before we can take a full backup we need to enable archive log mode using my script 1_enable_archive_log_mode.sh:

[oracle@dc1sbxdb001 demo]$ ./1_enable_archive_log_mode.sh
-----------------------
Step 1: Set environment
-----------------------

Setting the Database Environment using oraenv...
The Oracle base has been set to /u01/app/oracle

ORACLE_SID: ZEDDBA
ORACLE_HOME: /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1

Press Enter to continue

The environment is set to my ZEDDBA database, then next a table table is created to log each demo as they run in the table:

-----------------------------
Step 2: Create demo log table
-----------------------------

Content of 1_create_demo_table.sql file:

create table demo_log (when timestamp, comments varchar2(200));
exit

Press Enter to continue

Calling 'sqlplus / as sysdba @1_create_demo_table.sql'

Table created.

Press Enter to continue

Next we enable archive log mode:

-------------------------------
Step 3: Enable Archive Log Mode
-------------------------------

Content of 1_enable_archive_log_mode.sql file:

alter system set db_recovery_file_dest_size = 15G;
shutdown immediate;
startup mount;
alter database archivelog;
alter database open;
insert into demo_log values (sysdate, 'Enable Archive Log Mode');
commit;
@/media/sf_Software/scripts/demo/demo_log.sql
exit

Press Enter to continue

Calling 'sqlplus / as sysdba @1_enable_archive_log_mode.sql'

System altered.

Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 2952790016 bytes
Fixed Size 8625080 bytes
Variable Size 1677722696 bytes
Database Buffers 1258291200 bytes
Redo Buffers 8151040 bytes
Database mounted.

Database altered.

Database altered.

1 row created.

Commit complete.

WHEN COMMENTS
------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------
16-MAY-19 05.31.24.000000 PM Enable Archive Log Mode

Press Enter to exit shell script

[oracle@dc1sbxdb001 demo]$

Full Database Backup

We take a full backup using my script 2_full_backup.sh:

[oracle@dc1sbxdb001 demo]$ ./2_full_backup.sh 
-----------------------
Step 1: Set environment
-----------------------

Setting the Database Environment using oraenv...
The Oracle base has been set to /u01/app/oracle

ORACLE_SID: ZEDDBA
ORACLE_HOME: /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1

Press Enter to continue

The environment is set to my ZEDDBA database, then next the full backup is taken:

------------------------
Step 2: Take Full Backup
------------------------

Cotent of 2_full_backup.cmd file:

BACKUP DATABASE TAG 'FULL BACKUP';
HOST 'read Press Enter to LIST BACKUP';
LIST BACKUP;

Press Enter to continue

Calling 'rman target / cmdfile=/media/sf_Software/scripts/demo/2_full_backup.cmd'

Recovery Manager: Release 12.2.0.1.0 - Production on Thu May 16 17:38:52 2019

Copyright (c) 1982, 2017, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

connected to target database: ZEDDBA (DBID=3520942925)

RMAN> BACKUP DATABASE TAG 'FULL BACKUP';
2> HOST 'read Press Enter to LIST BACKUP';
3> LIST BACKUP;
4> 
Starting backup at 16-MAY-19
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=149 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_system_gftkr3fv_.dbf
input datafile file number=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_gftkr792_.dbf
input datafile file number=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_gftkr944_.dbf
input datafile file number=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_users_gftkr9fc_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 16-MAY-19
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 16-MAY-19
piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/backupset/2019_05_16/o1_mf_nnndf_FULL_BACKUP_gfv4k119_.bkp tag=FULL BACKUP comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
Finished backup at 16-MAY-19

Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 16-MAY-19
piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/autobackup/2019_05_16/o1_mf_s_1008437952_gfv4kjko_.bkp comment=NONE
Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 16-MAY-19

host command complete

We use host within RMAN just to wait for input before moving on.  Next we list the backup within RMAN using ‘LIST BACKUP‘:

List of Backup Sets
===================

BS Key Type LV Size Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
1 Full 498.93M DISK 00:00:08 16-MAY-19 
BP Key: 1 Status: AVAILABLE Compressed: NO Tag: FULL BACKUP
Piece Name: /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/backupset/2019_05_16/o1_mf_nnndf_FULL_BACKUP_gfv4k119_.bkp
List of Datafiles in backup set 1
File LV Type Ckp SCN Ckp Time Abs Fuz SCN Sparse Name
---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----------- ------ ----
1 Full 353825 16-MAY-19 NO /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_system_gftkr3fv_.dbf
2 Full 353825 16-MAY-19 NO /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_gftkr792_.dbf
3 Full 353825 16-MAY-19 NO /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_gftkr944_.dbf
4 Full 353825 16-MAY-19 NO /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_users_gftkr9fc_.dbf

BS Key Type LV Size Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
2 Full 8.31M DISK 00:00:00 16-MAY-19 
BP Key: 2 Status: AVAILABLE Compressed: NO Tag: TAG20190516T173912
Piece Name: /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/autobackup/2019_05_16/o1_mf_s_1008437952_gfv4kjko_.bkp
SPFILE Included: Modification time: 16-MAY-19
SPFILE db_unique_name: ZEDDBA
Control File Included: Ckp SCN: 353836 Ckp time: 16-MAY-19

Recovery Manager complete.

Press Enter to continue

Finally, we update the demo log table:

-------------------------------------
Step 3: Updating and viewing demo log
-------------------------------------
Calling 'sqlplus / as sysdba'
To updated and view demo log

1 row created.

Commit complete.

WHEN COMMENTS
------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------
16-MAY-19 05.31.24.000000 PM Enable Archive Log Mode
16-MAY-19 05.40.23.000000 PM Full Backup

Press Enter to exit shell script

[oracle@dc1sbxdb001 demo]$

Full Database Backup with Archive Logs

We take a full backup with archive logs using my script 3_full_backup_plus_archivelogs.sh:

[oracle@dc1sbxdb001 demo]$ ./3_full_backup_plus_archivelogs.sh
-----------------------
Step 1: Set environment
-----------------------

Setting the Database Environment using oraenv...
The Oracle base has been set to /u01/app/oracle

ORACLE_SID: ZEDDBA
ORACLE_HOME: /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1

Press Enter to continue

The environment is set to my ZEDDBA database, then next the full backup with archive logs is taken:

----------------------------------------
Step 2: Take Full Backup plus archivelog
----------------------------------------

Content of 3_full_backup_plus_archivelogs.cmd file:

BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG DELETE INPUT TAG 'FULL BACKUP PLUS ARCHIVELOG';
HOST 'read Press Enter to LIST BACKUP';
LIST BACKUP;

Press Enter to continue

Calling 'rman target / cmdfile=/media/sf_Software/scripts/demo/3_full_backup_plus_archivelogs.cmd'

Recovery Manager: Release 12.2.0.1.0 - Production on Thu May 16 17:45:54 2019

Copyright (c) 1982, 2017, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

connected to target database: ZEDDBA (DBID=3520942925)

RMAN> BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG DELETE INPUT TAG 'FULL BACKUP PLUS ARCHIVELOG';
2> HOST 'read Press Enter to LIST BACKUP';
3> LIST BACKUP;
4>

Starting backup at 16-MAY-19
current log archived
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=158 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archived log backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=13 RECID=1 STAMP=1008438357
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 16-MAY-19
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 16-MAY-19
piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/backupset/2019_05_16/o1_mf_annnn_FULL_BACKUP_PLUS_ARC_gfv4y7m2_.bkp tag=FULL BACKUP PLUS ARCHIVELOG comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
channel ORA_DISK_1: deleting archived log(s)
archived log file name=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/archivelog/2019_05_16/o1_mf_1_13_gfv4y4mk_.arc RECID=1 STAMP=1008438357
Finished backup at 16-MAY-19

Starting backup at 16-MAY-19
using channel ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_system_gftkr3fv_.dbf
input datafile file number=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_gftkr792_.dbf
input datafile file number=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_gftkr944_.dbf
input datafile file number=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_users_gftkr9fc_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 16-MAY-19
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 16-MAY-19
piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/backupset/2019_05_16/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20190516T174603_gfv4yco3_.bkp tag=TAG20190516T174603 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:07
Finished backup at 16-MAY-19

Starting backup at 16-MAY-19
current log archived
using channel ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archived log backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=14 RECID=2 STAMP=1008438370
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 16-MAY-19
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 16-MAY-19
piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/backupset/2019_05_16/o1_mf_annnn_FULL_BACKUP_PLUS_ARC_gfv4ym4v_.bkp tag=FULL BACKUP PLUS ARCHIVELOG comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel ORA_DISK_1: deleting archived log(s)
archived log file name=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/archivelog/2019_05_16/o1_mf_1_14_gfv4ylo5_.arc RECID=2 STAMP=1008438370
Finished backup at 16-MAY-19

Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 16-MAY-19
piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/autobackup/2019_05_16/o1_mf_s_1008438372_gfv4ynmv_.bkp comment=NONE
Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 16-MAY-19

host command complete

We use host within RMAN just to wait for input before moving on for demo purposes.  Next we list the backup within RMAN using ‘LIST BACKUP‘:

List of Backup Sets
===================

BS Key Type LV Size Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
1 Full 498.93M DISK 00:00:08 16-MAY-19 
BP Key: 1 Status: AVAILABLE Compressed: NO Tag: FULL BACKUP
Piece Name: /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/backupset/2019_05_16/o1_mf_nnndf_FULL_BACKUP_gfv4k119_.bkp
List of Datafiles in backup set 1
File LV Type Ckp SCN Ckp Time Abs Fuz SCN Sparse Name
---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----------- ------ ----
1 Full 353825 16-MAY-19 NO /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_system_gftkr3fv_.dbf
2 Full 353825 16-MAY-19 NO /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_gftkr792_.dbf
3 Full 353825 16-MAY-19 NO /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_gftkr944_.dbf
4 Full 353825 16-MAY-19 NO /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_users_gftkr9fc_.dbf

BS Key Type LV Size Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
2 Full 8.31M DISK 00:00:00 16-MAY-19 
BP Key: 2 Status: AVAILABLE Compressed: NO Tag: TAG20190516T173912
Piece Name: /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/autobackup/2019_05_16/o1_mf_s_1008437952_gfv4kjko_.bkp
SPFILE Included: Modification time: 16-MAY-19
SPFILE db_unique_name: ZEDDBA
Control File Included: Ckp SCN: 353836 Ckp time: 16-MAY-19

BS Key Size Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
3 77.83M DISK 00:00:01 16-MAY-19 
BP Key: 3 Status: AVAILABLE Compressed: NO Tag: FULL BACKUP PLUS ARCHIVELOG
Piece Name: /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/backupset/2019_05_16/o1_mf_annnn_FULL_BACKUP_PLUS_ARC_gfv4y7m2_.bkp

List of Archived Logs in backup set 3
Thrd Seq Low SCN Low Time Next SCN Next Time
---- ------- ---------- --------- ---------- ---------
1 13 332298 16-MAY-19 354044 16-MAY-19

BS Key Type LV Size Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
4 Full 498.94M DISK 00:00:06 16-MAY-19 
BP Key: 4 Status: AVAILABLE Compressed: NO Tag: TAG20190516T174603
Piece Name: /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/backupset/2019_05_16/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20190516T174603_gfv4yco3_.bkp
List of Datafiles in backup set 4
File LV Type Ckp SCN Ckp Time Abs Fuz SCN Sparse Name
---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----------- ------ ----
1 Full 354058 16-MAY-19 NO /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_system_gftkr3fv_.dbf
2 Full 354058 16-MAY-19 NO /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_gftkr792_.dbf
3 Full 354058 16-MAY-19 NO /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_gftkr944_.dbf
4 Full 354058 16-MAY-19 NO /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ZEDDBA/datafile/o1_mf_users_gftkr9fc_.dbf

BS Key Size Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
5 3.50K DISK 00:00:00 16-MAY-19 
BP Key: 5 Status: AVAILABLE Compressed: NO Tag: FULL BACKUP PLUS ARCHIVELOG
Piece Name: /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/backupset/2019_05_16/o1_mf_annnn_FULL_BACKUP_PLUS_ARC_gfv4ym4v_.bkp

List of Archived Logs in backup set 5
Thrd Seq Low SCN Low Time Next SCN Next Time
---- ------- ---------- --------- ---------- ---------
1 14 354044 16-MAY-19 354066 16-MAY-19

BS Key Type LV Size Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
6 Full 8.31M DISK 00:00:00 16-MAY-19 
BP Key: 6 Status: AVAILABLE Compressed: NO Tag: TAG20190516T174612
Piece Name: /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ZEDDBA/autobackup/2019_05_16/o1_mf_s_1008438372_gfv4ynmv_.bkp
SPFILE Included: Modification time: 16-MAY-19
SPFILE db_unique_name: ZEDDBA
Control File Included: Ckp SCN: 354077 Ckp time: 16-MAY-19

Recovery Manager complete.

Press Enter to continue

Finally, we update the demo log table:

-------------------------------------
Step 3: Updating and viewing demo log
-------------------------------------
Calling 'sqlplus / as sysdba'
To updated and view demo log

1 row created.

Commit complete.

WHEN COMMENTS
------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------
16-MAY-19 05.31.24.000000 PM Enable Archive Log Mode
16-MAY-19 05.40.23.000000 PM Full Backup
16-MAY-19 05.46.17.000000 PM Full Backup plus Archive Logs

Press Enter to exit shell script

[oracle@dc1sbxdb001 demo]$

Reference

Scripts

  1. 1_enable_archive_log_mode.sh
  2. 1_enable_archive_log_mode.sql
  3. 1_create_demo_table.sql
  4. 2_full_backup.sh
  5. 2_full_backup.cmd
  6. 3_full_backup_plus_archivelogs.sh
  7. 3_full_backup_plus_archivelogs.cmd

To download all 7 in one zip: 1_full_backup.zip

The rest of the series

  1. Oracle Database File Placement Best Practice & Create Database Demo
  2. RMAN Full Backup & Demo
  3. RMAN Image Copy & Demo
  4. RMAN Incremental & Demo Part 1 (Level 0)
  5. RMAN Incremental & Demo Part 2 (Level 1)
  6. RMAN Incremental with Block Change Tracking & Demo
  7. RMAN Incremental Differential vs Cumulative & Demo
  8. RMAN Incremental Updating Backup & Demo Part 1
  9. RMAN Incremental Updating Backup & Demo Part 2
  10. Flashback
  11. RMAN Block Media Recovery
  12. RMAN Recover database with only FRA
  13. RMAN Obsolete

Please Note: Links to the blog posts will be released daily and updated here.

 

If you found this blog post useful, please like as well as follow me through my various Social Media avenues available on the sidebar and/or subscribe to this oracle blog via WordPress/e-mail.

Thanks

Zed DBA (Zahid Anwar)

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RMAN Back to Basics Series

Back in October 2017, I presented “RMAN Back to Basics” at the UKOUG Database SIG.  The intention was to go over RMAN basics but ended up more like a master class 🙂

I was asked if I could share my demos from the presentation, thus the “RMAN Back to Basics Series” was born!  Albeit a year and a half later 🙂

Enjoy!

RMAN Back to Basics Series

  1. Oracle Database File Placement Best Practice & Create Database Demo
  2. RMAN Full Backup & Demo
  3. RMAN Image Copy & Demo
  4. RMAN Incremental & Demo Part 1 (Level 0)
  5. RMAN Incremental & Demo Part 2 (Level 1)
  6. RMAN Incremental with Block Change Tracking & Demo
  7. RMAN Incremental Differential vs Cumulative & Demo
  8. RMAN Incremental Updating Backup & Demo Part 1
  9. RMAN Incremental Updating Backup & Demo Part 2
  10. Flashback
  11. RMAN Block Media Recovery
  12. RMAN Recover database with only FRA
  13. RMAN Obsolete

Please Note: Links to the blog posts will be released daily and updated here.

 

If you found this blog post useful, please like as well as follow me through my various Social Media avenues available on the sidebar and/or subscribe to this oracle blog via WordPress/e-mail.

Thanks

Zed DBA (Zahid Anwar)